Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Maratha Empire and Fort Essays

Maratha Empire and Fort Essays Maratha Empire and Fort Essay Maratha Empire and Fort Essay Raigad fort Raigad (Marathi: is a hill fortress situated in the modern day Raigad district of Maharashtra, India. The Maratha king Shivaji made the fort his capital in 1674 when he was crowned King of a Maratha Kingdom which later developed into the Maratha Empire eventually covering majority of modern day India. The fort, which rises 820 metres (2,700 ft) above sea level, is located in the Sahyadri mountain range. There are approximately 1400–1450 steps leading to the fort, though today a rope-way exists to reach the top of the fort. The fort was looted and destroyed by the British upon siege. History Shivaji Maharaj had seized the fort in 1656, then the fortress of Rairi, from the royal house of the Chandrarrao Mores, a junior or Cadet dynasty descended from the ancient Maurya imperial dynasty. The last More king (or raja) was a feudatory of the Sultan of Bijapur. Shivaji renovated and expanded the Fortress of Rairi and renamed it Raigad (the Kings Fort), the name he gave it when he selected it for his capital when he founded the Maratha empire. Rajgad, a hill fortress situated in Raigad District of Maharashtra, India was capital of Shivajis kingdom. Major features The fort was built by Chandrarao Mores in 1030. forts ruins today consist of the queens quarters, consisting of six chambers, with each chamber having its own private restroom with plumbing. The main palace was constructed using wood, of which only the bases of pillars remain. Ruins of three watch towers can be seen directly in front of the palace grounds overlooking an artificial lake called Ganga Sagar Lake created next to the fort. It also has a view of the execution point called Takmak Tok, a cliff from which the sentenced prisoners were thrown to their death. This areas is now fenced off. [1]. The fort also has ruins of the market, and it has such structure that one can shop even while riding or sitting astride a horse. The kings public Durbar has a replica of the original throne that faces the main doorway called the Nagarkhana Darwaja. This enclosure had been acoustically designed to aid hearing from the doorway to the throne. A secondary entrance, called the Mena Darwaja, was supposedly the private entrance of the royal ladies of the fort; it leads to the queens quarters. The erstwhile main entrance to the fort is the imposing Maha Darwaja. The convoy of the king and the king himself used the Palkhi Darwaja. To the right of Palkhi Darwaja, is a row of three dark and deep chambers. Historians believe that these were the granaries for the fort. [2] A statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji is erected in front of the ruins of the main market avenue that eventually leads to the Jagdishwar Mandir and his own Samadhi (tomb) and that of his dog Waghya. [3]

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Is WTO a Necessasity for Global Trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Is WTO a Necessasity for Global Trade - Essay Example The article takes a deeper look at the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as the sole international organisation that deals with the global trade rules between countries. The main function of WTO is ensuring that global trade flows predictably, smoothly, as well as freely as possible. The organisation can be looked at in several ways. First, it is an organisation, which fosters opening of trade. Second, national governments negotiate agreements on trade through the forum. Thirdly, national governments settle diverse trade disputes through it and finally, it operates a trade rules’ system. Essentially, WTO is an effective place in which the member governments attempt sorting out various trade problems they encounter with each other. The WTO entails a set of rules: the core of the agreements of WTO, which were negotiated as well as signed by majority of the trading nations in the world, forms its basis of operations. The agreements provide the member governments with legal ground-ru les for smooth international commercial activities. The agreements are essentially contracts, which bind national governments to stick to their policies of trade within agreed limits and boundaries. Although the agreements have been negotiated as well as signed by national governments, the objective is helping goods and services’ producers, exporters, as well as the importers to carry out their business operations while permitting governments to meet the environmental and social objectives. (Aaronson 1996). The overriding purpose of WTO system is to aid trade to flow freely so long as it has no undesirable side effects since this is imperative for the overall well-being and economic development. That partly implies removal of obstacles. It also implies ensuring that individuals, governments, and companies know the existing trade rules across the globe as well as giving them confidence there won’t be sudden alterations of the policy. In simple terms, the rules must be p redictable and transparent (Jackson 1994). The WTO has many benefits but there are also some critics to its operations and this forms the basis of this paper. Thus, the paper shall examine the functions of the WTO and its achievements and gauge them against the criticism presented by those opposed to its operations to help in giving a comprehensive conclusion regarding whether the WTO is a necessity for global trade or not. Basic Information about the WTO The WTO is based in Geneva, Switzerland. It began its life on January 1 1995 though its system of trading is about fifty years older. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has since 1948 provided the system with effective rules. GATT was born by the General Agreement as an unofficial, de factor global organisation. This unofficial defector organisation evolved via a number of rounds of negotiations as members tried to compile an effective plan for their operations. The largest and last GATT round, which established the WTO, is the popular Uruguay Round that lasted between 1986 and 1994. While GATT had chiefly dealt with essential trade in goods, WTO and its accords currently, cover the trade in services, as well as in traded designs and creations and inventions (the intellectual property). By 10 February 2011, the body (WTO) had a membership of 153 nations while its budget for 2011 amounted to 196 million Swiss Francs. The head of WTO is Pascal Lamy (the director-general) who leads its 640 secretariat staff (WTO 2012). Functions of WTO The body is run and managed by its member state governments. All the major decisions of WTO are reached upon by its membership either by their delegates or by ambassadors (who meet frequently in Geneva) or ministers (who typically convene a meeting at least once for every two years). While the member states drive it, the WTO cannot function effectively without its Secretariat coordinating its activities (Aaronson 1996).

Friday, February 7, 2020

Criticism of Absorption Cost System Math Problem

Criticism of Absorption Cost System - Math Problem Example As common sense would have it, fixed cost remains fixed no matter what the level of production is. Hence, in such a case managers often tend to over produce thinking it’s better to allocate the fix overhead over a wider range of output and reducing the cost per unit (since spreading fixed cost over greater units tends to drive down fixed cost per unit and when fixed costs per unit go down then so does the overall costa per unit), thus seeking an increase in profit per unit of output. The lower fixed cost per unit does of course increase the level of profitability. But a couple of factors need to be considered while making the overproduction decision. While over producing tends to allocate fixed cost over a greater units of output, we need to see whether we really need to over produce. Many factors would need to be considered including the demand for the excess produce, storage and handling costs, cash flow situation etc. There would be no point going for over production if the re is no sales market for additional units or the storage costs are high as such a step might actually cost more than the saving done by allocating the fixed overheads on excessive production. It also needs to be considered that what would happen to the excess inventory that would be produced. If the company has not taken care of the market conditions and consequently it produces in excess of its projected sales, then such an exercise would result in excessive stock piling. Clearly the company wouldn’t be profitable in such a scenario. Another key question that needs to be answered is whether the incentive to overproduce allows over producing stock irrespective of stock piling or storage conditions. The excessive inventory that would be produced would be visible to everyone, reflected on managerial accounts as well as in the company’s audited financial statements. It is no doubt important for managers and decision makers to consider here whether the allocation of fixed overheads provides an incentive to overproduce or not. However the danger reflected by the incentive to over produce should not be made the basis of decision making about the allocation of the fixed overheads. I agree with your view that over production results in excess inventory. Yes, sometimes it does happen that excessive production is done at the year-end so that the production costs can be driven down and financial statements are efficiently window dressed to show a good position of the company. However you need to know that there are some products that take a lot of time to be produced and their fixed costs are extremely high. In such a case, I personally think that over production is justified provided there are adequate storage facilities and there is an active sales market. Student’s Response: â€Å"In my experience allocations which are confined to fix overhead is the catalyst to overproduce a less than desirable product. There are two things that definitely go w rong. 1. When management have an incentive to decrease the cost of product, usually this is a force step toward decrease quality of all resource used to make a final product with less capital and in less time.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Involves and acid and a metal Essay Example for Free

Involves and acid and a metal Essay The Problem: To investigate one of the factors affecting the rate of reaction between a metal and an acid. Background Knowledge: The balanced equation for the reaction that takes place between magnesium and hydrochloric acid is: Mg + 2HCl == MgCl + Cl From this equation, we can already see that it involves and acid and a metal, therefore: Acid + metal == salt + hydrogen The ionisation equation of the hydrochloric acid is: HCl(aq) == H + Cl This experiment will demonstrate the breaking of bonds. Bonds break in order to allow certain atoms to re-arrange before the new bonds are formed. When magnesium reacts with the hydrochloric acid, a particle of this acid must collide with a particle of the magnesium with adequate energy in order to break the bonds between the magnesium and the hydrochloric acid. This is known as the Collision Theory. The collisions between the particles must collide more often and with more sufficient energy in order for the rate of reaction to increase. Although, not every collision produces a successful reaction as they require a certain amount of energy to break bonds. This is called activation energy. The rate of a chemical reaction refers to the speed at which it happens, and different metals react at various rates. The progress of a reaction can be measured by the rate of a formation of a product or by the decrease of reactants. There are four main factors that can be varied to affect the rate of reaction between magnesium and acid: 1. Surface area (of the reactants) 2. Concentration (of the reactant) 3. Temperature 4. The presence of a specific catalyst If the surface area were increased by using a magnesium powder, then the reaction would speed up, as there are more particles that are able to collide with the hydrochloric acid. The products of a reaction are formed as a result of the collisions between the reactant particles. Consequently, if the concentration of a solution is increased, collisions are more likely to occur. The more often the particles collide, the higher the chance that a reaction will take place. Subsequently, the rate of a chemical reaction increases if the concentration of the reactant is also increased. This is also because the rate is proportional to the concentration. E. g. Diagram to illustrate a high concentration and a low concentration: When the temperature at which the reaction is carried out is increased, the energy of the particles also increases. As a result of this, the particles move much faster allowing them to collide more often with other particles. Therefore, as there are more collisions and these collisions are more energetic, the rate of reaction increases. Catalysts are used to speed up a reaction. These biological catalysts are extremely specific, therefore only speed up certain reactions. Every chemical reaction taking place has an exclusive enzyme catalyst (an enzyme is a protein molecule produced in a living cell.) A catalyst will decrease the activation energy and forms an alternative path to help the collisions to be more successful. Safety: As I will be using glass conical flasks and burettes, I will be very careful when handling them in case I harm myself or others by dropping them. The hydrochloric acid is also corrosive, which means that it is able to eat away at materials that it is within contact with. Again, I should handle this carefully and ensure that there are no spillages. Water seems quite harmless, but if I spill any, it is possible that someone may skid or trip on it. For safety precautions, I will wear goggles and an overall and also tie my hair back. Method:   I will begin by attatching a plastic burette clamp to a clamp stand at a practical height to begin my experiment.   I will then fill my water tub approximately 1/2 full with water, and place it next to my clamp stand (so that the burette clamp is able to hole the burette above the tub. )   Next, I will fill my burette with tap water above 50cmi   and attach it to my clamp stand using the burette clamp. Very quickly, I will swiftly turn the burette upside down and speedily submerge it under the water. Afterwards, I will produce the solution of hydrochloric acid and water using separate measuring cylinders. I will remove the bung that is stopping the conical flask, and pour in the measurements of hydrochloric acid and water. I will then drop the magnesium ribbon (which will be cut using scissors), replace the bung and swirl the solution for a second, whilst starting the stop clock. I will take readings every 10 seconds. Diagram: Apparatus:   Burette   Delivery tube Clamp stand   Burette clamp   Magnesium tape   Distilled water   Stop clock   Conical flask Measuring cylinders (at least 2).

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

She :: essays research papers

Khadijah and her brother was home alone on a Monday night. No they were not trying to have a wild party. They were waiting by the phone expecting a call from there parent. I know this sounds strange, teenagers waiting for a call from their parents. But this was not a "Is the house okay" call. There Aunt Marla was in the Hospice House for the terminally ill. They wanted to know how she was doing and was every thing okay. When the phone rung they ran to it like horses at the race track. It was their father telling them that their Aunt was doing fine and will have to stay there a couple of months. They felt relive to hear the good news, but Khadijah knew something was not right. As she got in the bed it felt kind of strange like someone was in it. (Let's not forget this is the same bed Khadijah use to share with her Aunt when she lived with her family.) Khadijah went to sleep with her Aunt Marla in her mind. The next morning Khadijah woke up feeling like something was wrong. She got dress as usual and went down stairs for breakfast. But she did not sit to the table with her brothers. Instead she sat in the rocking chair her Aunt read her stories in. When her mother came down stairs she ask was everything was okay. Khadijah said "yes everything is fine." Everything was not fine, but Khadijah did not no what was wrong yet. When Khadijah got out of the chair to take her bowl to the kitchen she notice it started to rock on its own. She thought nothing of it and guess it came from her getting up real fast. Every morning Khadijah's mother takes her and her brother to school. And on the way there is a graveyard. Khadijah hardly ever looks at the graveyard when she passes by, but something about it today made her look. It look like it had some kind of glow to it. As she pass by Khadijah said "Somebody's dead", her brother Carl said " No duh! The people in the graveyard are.". But Khadijah was not talking about the people in the graveyard. Then Khadijah ask her mother what time was it. Her mother said it was 8 o'clock. Her brother ask "Why does it matter?

Monday, January 13, 2020

Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth Essay

An ambitious ascent from a poor Illinois farm boy to occupying the highest political office during one of Americas most turbulent times makes for the literature of hero worship. In the essay entitled Abraham Lincoln the self-made myth Rich Hofstadter challenges the reader to penetrate beneath the surface of the American political tradions and investigate the event and actions that contributed to the Lincoln Myth. To begin with Hofstadter states that one of Lincolnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s most endearing qualisties to Americans was his humble origins and the fact that, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Lincoln was a preeminent example of that self-help which Americans have always so admired,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (121). But he further goes on to state that Lincoln used this to his advantage. First in his campaign speeches always eluding to himself as humble Abraham Lincoln and in the way he addressed his own wife in public as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“motherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (122). See more: Foot Binding In China essay He received distinguished guests in shirtsleeves, and once during his presidency hailed a soldier out of the ranks with the cry, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Bub! Bub!à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  The concept of the self-made, simple man played well with the American public thus became à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“fully absorbed into his political being,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (124). Historical novels and fictionalized biographies about Lincoln would be amiss of the greater portion of its contents were not dedicated to the slavery issue. Many only give, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a tiresome celebration of the America past with a progressive interpretation of American history of her-worship and national self-congratulation,à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (Forward 2). In Hostadterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s essay he discusses the slavery issue not with a sentimental approach but with critical analysis. Lincoln was a Southerner by birth. He grew up in communities in Illinois where slavery was rare. Laws against runaway slaves were in force when Lincoln served in the s tate legislature. It was here that Lincoln made his first public statement on slavery by voting against a proslavery resolution.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Visiting Museums - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 299 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/18 Category Art Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Some people find visiting museums boring as a form of entertainment, while others believe that the role of museums is to educate people, not entertain. Discuss, what is your opinion? In our world today, there is a wide variety of museums where people can travel to and see differently interesting things. Some people state that visiting museums is only a form of recreation; others disagree, arguing that museums play a role in education. In fact, each of these arguments has its own validity. Firstly, museums such as art and music can offer people with a wide range of entertainment activities. For example, they often organise traditional music events performed by local or other famous artists that people can attend to and enjoy to some extent. Another point is that many visitors nowadays may choose to come to museums just for pleasure or as one of the activities that they take part in their holiday trips. This, therefore, makes museums a place to entertain in people leisure time. On the other hand, the establishment of a particular museum like history, science, or oceanography is usually attached to educational purposes. As can be seen, school and university students and teachers are always the guests of museums because the places are where they can discover and obtain a large amount of information related to their studies and teaching. In addition, there are a number of seminars and conferences held at museums that are informative and necessary for scholars and experts in their fields of research. In this way, museums prove the supporting role in human education. In conclusion, visiting museums is clearly seen as both means of entertainment and education. However, from my viewpoint, people should perceive the value of museums in enhancing their own knowledge about the world they live in. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Visiting Museums" essay for you Create order